Sheffield Political Cultures / Commonwealth Café

We are delighted to announce the start of an exciting new, AHRC-funded cultural engagement project based in the Department of Archaeology that brings together academics from across the Faculty of Arts and Humanities Faculty (including Professor Dawn Hadley (Archaeology), Dr Amanda Crawley Jackson (French), Dr Gary Rivet and Dr Adrian Bingham (History) and Dr Jane Hodson (English)). Between February and May 2013, new research will be completed around the history of working-class Sheffield, socialism in the city, the life and times of Edward Carpenter and the more recent history of political activism in Sheffield and this research will help to inform a theatre production that will be performed three times in various venues across the city. These venues will engage with non-academic spaces to ensure that the production is available to the widest section of the local community. Dates, times and venues will be announced in due course. Project researchers Helen Smith and Dr Catherine O’Byrne will be completing the research and working with Charlie Barnes of the local applied theatre company Dead Earnest on the production.

The project links two innovative research projects already in progress within the University:

The Commonwealth Cafe Project

Helen is working on researching Edward Carpenter’s Commonwealth Cafe and the impact that this had on politics and society in Sheffield. The location of the Cafe was in Scotland Street in the Shalesmoor area of the city where Dr Amanda Crawley Jackson is currently working on the Furnace Park project in that area of the city. See Sheffield Furnace Park for further details.

Stories of Activism – Oral history project

Catherine is conducting oral history interviews with local activists to contribute to an archive of such interviews that will be housed at Sheffield City Archives for posterity. Parts of these interviews may also be used to inform the theatre piece. Further information can be found about the wider ‘Stories of Activism’ project run by Dr Gary Rivet and Dr Adrian Bingham at Stories of Activism in Sheffield.

For further information about the project, updates or if you are interested in becoming involved contact:

Helen Smith

Catherine O’Byrne

The Sheffield Political Cultures blog can be found here.

Edward Carpenter and his lover George Merrill who helped to found and run the Commonwealth Café
Edward Carpenter and his lover George Merrill who helped to found and run the Commonwealth Café (copyright: Picture Sheffield s09115).


Scotland Street, Sheffield. Number 51 formed part of the premises of the Commonwealth Café
Scotland Street, Sheffield. Number 51 formed part of the premises of the Commonwealth Café (copyright: Picture Sheffield s19281).

Engaging with the city’s past

A number of the discussions we’ve had about the city over the last two years have touched on how we engage with its past. We’ve discussed post-traumatic urbanism through the lens of Lebbeus Woods’ War and Architecture (see also the fascinating exhibition of Woods’ early drawings) and have also begun to think through our engagement with (or perhaps literal and/or conceptual avoidance of) recent sites of trauma in the city. We’ve walked around Kelham Island, considering the ways in which a city’s history becomes heritage, but also how certain narratives become dominant and survive, while others are minorised and erased.

Walter Crane’s 1885 design for the Commonweal journal

Our current project engages with figures and movements from Sheffield’s past: Ebenezer Elliott, the Sheffield Socialist Society, Edward Carpenter, the Chartists… And we would like to invite people to contribute their thoughts, memories and expertise to an archive that will be accessible through our new interactive web page (scheduled to go live in May this year) but will also form a basis for a series of radio broadcasts and exhibitions we’re planning for summer 2012.

We’re not historians (though we count historians among our numbers). Our backgrounds are in literature, philosophy, art, neuroscience, poetry, politics and the environmental sciences. So our aim is less to provide an account of Sheffield’s history, than to relate it to the issues we confront today; to confront dominant politics and policies with our creative investigations of the past and understand more about the ways in which the shape and narratives of our city have been constructed, for better or for worse, over time.

In 1887 we took a large house and shop in Scotland Street [in Sheffield], a poor district of the town; and opened a café, using the large room above for a meeting and lecture room, and the house for a joint residence for some of us who were more immediately concerned in carrying on the business. We had all sorts of social gatherings, lectures, teas, entertainments in the Hall – the wives and sisters of the “comrades” helping, especially in the social work; we had Annie Besant, Charlotte Wilson, [Peter] Kropotkin, [Henry] Hyndman, and other notables down to speak for us; we gave teas to the slum-children who dwelt in the neighboring crofts and alleys (but these had at first to be given up on account of the poor little things tearing themselves and each other to pieces, perfect mobs of them, in their frantic attempts to gain admittance – a difficulty which no arrangement of tickets or of personal supervision seemed to obviate); and we organized excursions into municipal politics; and country propaganda. This last was often amusing as well as interesting. While, in the towns, as time went on, audiences grew in numbers and attentiveness, it still remained very difficult to capture the country districts. The miners would really not be uninterested, but in their sullen combative way they would take care not to show it. Many a time we have gone down to some mining village and taken up our stand on some heap of slag or broken wall, and the miners would come round and stand about or sit down deliberately with their backs to the speaker, and spit, and converse, as if quite heedless of the oration going on. But after a time, and as speaker succeeded speaker, one by one they would turn round – their lower jaws dropping – fairly captivated by the argument. It was much the same with the country rustics – but as a rule less successful. I remember on one occasion seven or eight of us, armed with literature, going for a long country walk to Hathersage in the Derbyshire dales. We had Tom Maguire with us, from Leeds, an excellent speaker, full of Irish wit and persuasiveness. We set him upon a stoneheap in the middle of the village and standing round him ourselves while he spoke, acted as decoy ducks to bring the villagers together. The latter full of curiosity came, in moderate numbers, but not one of them would approach nearer than a distance of twenty or thirty yards – just far enough to make the speaker despair of really reaching them. In vain we separated and going round tried to coax them to come nearer. In vain the speaker shouted himself hoarse and fired off his best jokes. Not a bit of it – they weren’t going to be fooled by us! and at last red in the face and out of breath and with a string of curses, Tom descended from his cairn, and we all, shaking the dust of the village off our feet, departed!

I meanwhile and during these years, not only took part in our local work, but spoke and lectured in the Socialist connection all round the country – at Bradford, Halifax, Leeds, Glasgow, Dundee, Edinburgh, Hull, Liverpool, Nottingham and other places – my subjects the failures of the present Commercial system, and the possible reorganization of the future. As to the Café, we were only able to hold to it for a year. Though quite a success from the propagandist point of view, financially it was a failure. The refreshment department was not patronized nearly enough to make it pay. The neighborhood was an exceedingly poor one. And so we were obliged to surrender the place, and retire to smaller quarters. During that year however I really lived most of the time at the Scotland Street place. I occupied a large attic at the top of the house, almost high enough to escape the smells of the street below, but exposed to showers of blacks which fell from the innumerable chimneys around. In the early morning at 5 a.m. there was the strident sound of the ‘hummers’ and the clattering of innumerable clogs of men and girls going to their work, and on till late at night there were drunken cries and shouting. Far around stretched nothing but factory chimneys and foul courts inhabited by the wretched workers. It was, I must say, frightfully depressing; and all the more so because of tragic elements in my personal life at the time. Only the enthusiasm of our social work, and the abiding thoughts which had inspired Towards Democracy kept me going. I spent my spare time during the year in arranging and editing the collection of songs and music called Chants of Labour – a thing which might have been much better done by some one else, but I could find no one to do it. And it was a queer experience, collecting these songs of hope and enthusiasm, and composing such answering tunes and harmonies as I could, in the midst of these gloomy and discordant conditions.

As I say, we only stayed a year here, and as far as my health was concerned I don’t think I could have endured it much longer. I realized the terrible drawback to health and vitality consequent on living in these slums of manufacturing towns, and the way these conditions are inevitably sapping the strength of our populations.

Edward Carpenter, My Days and Dreams. Source:

Walter Crane, The Capitalist Vampire, 1885.

If you would like to contribute material, texts, images or ideas, or perhaps would like to join us on our regular walks and talks, please contact for more information.